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On Evidence for Textual Circulation

July 4, 2013

One part of compiling the corpus of texts for this project was, as I mentioned in the previous post, determining the evidence for their circulation in Anglo-Saxon England. Fortunately, Anglo-Saxon scholars have long been dedicated to this aspect of textual history, particularly through methodologies established by source studies–indeed, this is one of the most traditional aspects of Anglo-Saxon studies.* For the past few decades, source studies have been most notably advocated and undertaken by the collaborative projects known as Fontes Anglo-Saxonici and Sources of Anglo-Saxon Literary Culture (SASLC). The methodologies and results of these projects were certainly beneficial for my purposes, since they lay the groundwork for amassing evidence of the circulation and knowledge of texts. Similar methodologies and results are exemplified in Michael Lapidge’s examination of the knowledge and circulation of classical and patristic texts from intellectual and material evidence in The Anglo-Saxon Library (Oxford: Oxford UP, 2006).

Along with the previously mentioned projects, one of the most significant contributions to this subject is Helmut Gneuss’s Handlist of Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts: A List of Manuscripts and Manuscript Fragments Written or Owned in England up to 1100, Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies 241 (Tempe, AZ: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2001) [hereafter HG, cited by no.].** As the title indicates, this work contains a comprehensive appraisal of the surviving manuscripts that can be linked to Anglo-Saxon England, and is an invaluable resource. For further details on manuscripts, I have also referred to another invaluable standard resource for Anglo-Saxonists, not to be overshadowed by Gnuess’s work, N. R. Ker, Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing Anglo-Saxon (Oxford: Clarendon P, 1957; repr. with supplement, 1990) [hereafter NRK, cited by no.].

The methodologies I have relied on for my project, then, amount to four main types of evidence for the circulation of texts related to Judith (all found in the “Guide for Readers” in the frontmatter of SASLC publications):***

1) Manuscripts
2) Booklists
3) Quotations and/or Citations
4) References

In what follows, I present some preliminary evidence for each text, mainly regarding manuscripts, since these are the most definitive material witnesses (though, in a few cases, I also provide information about other types of evidence). In most cases, information about manuscripts (dates, provenance, etc.) was taken from Gneuss’s Handlist; manuscripts marked with an asterisk contain glosses on the relevant text. As part of my larger project, I plan to develop more comprehensive accounts from the other types of evidence for each work.

Biblical Witnesses of Judith (translated c.405-407)

Codex Amiatinus: Florence, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Amiatino 1 (s. vii ex. or viii in., before 716, Wearmouth-Jarrow): HG 825. (Complete pandect.)
London, British Library, Royal 1.E.vii + viii (s. x/xi, prov. Canterbury, Christ Church): HG 449. (Two-volume Bible.)
London, British Library, Royal 1.E.vi + Canterbury, Cathedral Library, Add. 16 + Oxford, Bodleian Library, Lat.bib.b.2 (P) (s. ix1 or ix 2/4 or ix med., S England; prov. Canterbury, St. Augustine’s): HG 448. (Presumably was once a complete Bible, now only gospels and fragments of Acts.)

Early Christian Authors

Ambrose (c.340-97)

De officiis ministrorum (CPL 144)
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Bodley 92 (s. xi/xii, prob. Normandy, or England?): HG 543.

De uiduis (CPL 146)
Cambridge, Trinity College B.14.30 (s. xi ex.): HG 175.5.
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Bodley 768 (s. xi ex., Salisbury): HG 596.
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Bodley 792 (s. xi/xii, England or Normandy): HG 599.
Paris, Bibliothèque de l’Arsenal 236 (s. xi/xii, English and continental scribes): HG 875.9 (2nd addenda).
Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, lat. 1751 (s. xi2 or xi ex., Canterbury, St. Augustine’s?): HG 881.

Pseudo-Augustine

De Iudith I-II (Sermones 48-9) (CPPM 833-4)
No manuscripts. (Several other manuscripts circulated containing various Pseudo-Augustinian sermons, but not including these two.)

Dracontius (c.455-505)

De laudibus Dei (CPL 1509)
No manuscripts. (Quoted by Aldhelm, Carmen de uirginitate; Bede, De die iudicii; and the author of the Old English poem The Phoenix—all listed in Fontes.)

Isidore (c.560-636)

Allegoriae quaedam sacrae Scripturae (CPL 1190)
Düsseldorf, Universitäts-und Landesbibliothek, Fragm. K 1: B 210 + San Marino, California, Henry E. Huntingdon Library RB 99513 (PR 1188 F) (s. viii2, prob. England): HG 818.5 (2nd addenda).
Hereford, Cathedral Library O.III.2 (s. ix2, France; England s. xi ex.): HG 263.
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Bodley 391 (s. xi ex., Canterbury, St. Augustine’s): HG 573.
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Bodley 444, fols. 1-27 (s. xi ex., Salisbury): HG 578.
Salisbury, Cathedral Library 88 (s. xi ex., Salisbury): HG 713.
Salisbury, Cathedral Library 157 (s. xi ex., England?): HG 742.
Arras, Bibliothèque Municipale 764, fols. 134-81 (s. ix/x, Winchester?; Bath by s. xi): HG 780.
Düsseldorf, Universitätsbibliothek K1: B.210 (s. viii2 or viii ex., prob. England or Werden?): HG 818.5.
Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek clm 14096, fols 1-99 (s. viii/ix, Wales or Cornwall or Brittany): HG 851.6.

Etymologiae (CPL 1186)
Cambridge, St. John’s College Ii.12.29 (s. ix1 or ix med., France): HG 154.5.
Cambridge, Trinity College B.15.33 (s. x in., S England): HG 176.
Düsseldorf, Universitäts-und Landesbibliothek, Fragm. K 15: O 17, K 19: Z 8/7b + Gerleve, Abteibibliothek s. n. (s. viii2, prob. Northumbria): HG 821 (2nd addenda).
London, British Library, Royal 6.C.i (s. xi1 or xi2, Canterbury, St. Augustine’s): HG 469.
Longleat House, Wiltshire, Library of the Marguess of Bath NMR 10589 (s. vii/viii, Ireland): HG 524.4.
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Bodley 239 (s. xi/xii or xii in., Normandy?): HG 561.
Oxford, Queen’s College 320 (s. x med., Canterbury?): HG 682.
Düsseldorf, Universitätsbibliothek K15: O17 and K19: Z8/7b (s. viii2, prob. Northumbria): HG 821.
Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, lat. 4871, fols. 161-8 (s. viii/ix, Northumbria?): HG 885.
Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, lat. 7585 (s. ix2/4 or ix2, France; England by s. x2): HG 889.
(Several other manuscripts circulated containing various parts of Isidore’s Etymologiae, but not including passages relevant to Judith.)

De ortu et obitu patrem (CPL 1191)
Düsseldorf, Universitäts-und Landesbibliothek, Fragm. K 1: B 210 + San Marino, California, Henry E. Huntingdon Library RB 99513 (PR 1188 F) (s. viii2, prob. England): HG 818.5 (2nd addenda).
Hereford, Cathedral Library O.III.2 (s. ix2, France; England s. xi ex.): HG 263.
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Bodley 391 (s. xi ex., Canterbury, St. Augustine’s): HG 573.
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Bodley 444, fols. 1-27 (s. xi ex., Salisbury): HG 578.
Salisbury, Cathedral Library 88 (s. xi ex., Salisbury): HG 713.
Salisbury, Cathedral Library 157 (s. xi ex., England?): HG 742.
Arras, Bibliothèque Municipale 764, fols. 134-81 (s. ix/x, Winchester?; Bath by s. xi): HG 780.
Düsseldorf, Universitätsbibliothek K1: B.210 (s. viii2 or viii ex., prob. England or Werden?): HG 818.5.
St. Petersburg, Russian National Library Q.v.I.15 (s. viii2, SW England): HG 845.
Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek clm 14096, fols 1-99 (s. viii/ix, Wales or Cornwall or Brittany): HG 851.6.

Jerome (347-420)

Apologia aduersus libros Rufini (CPL 613)
No manuscripts. (Quoted by Bede, preface to De temporum ratione.)

Epistolae 22, 54, and 79 (CPL 620)
Cambridge, Trinity College R.3.33 (s. xi ex., England): HG 179.4 (addenda). (Contains only Epistola 22.)
Cambridge, University Library Dd.2.7 (s. xi ex., Canterbury, Christ Church): HG 2.5.
Hereford, Cathedral Library O.VI.11 (s. xi ex.): HG 264. (Epistolae 22 and 54, not 79.)
(Several other manuscripts circulated containing various letters by Jerome, but not including these three.)

Liber interpretationis hebraicorum nominum (CPL 581)
Durham, Cathedral Library B.II.11 (s. xi ex. [before 1096], Normandy): HG 230.
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Bodley 808 (s. xi/xii, England or Normandy): HG 601.
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Marshall 19 (s. xi1, E France?; Malmesbury s. x2 or x ex.): HG 659.

Praefatio in librum Iudith (CPL 591G)
See Biblical Witnesses.

Prudentius (348-c.410)

Psychomachia (CPL 1441)
Cambridge, University Library, Gg.5.35 (s. xi med., Canterbury, St. Augustine’s?): NRK 16; HG 12.*
Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 23, vol. i (s. x2 or x ex. or xi in., S England): NRK 31; HG 38.*
Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 223 (s. ix3/4, Arras, St. Vaast; England s. x1): HG 70.
Cambridge, Trinity College O.2.51, pt. i (s. x2): HG 191.
Durham, Cathedral Library B.IV.9 (s. x med.): HG 246.
London, British Library, Add. 24199 (s. x ex.): HG 285.*
London, British Library, Cotton Cleopatra C.viii (s. x/xi, Canterbury, Christ Church): HG 324.
London, British Library, Cotton Titus D.xvi (s. xi/xii, St. Albans): HG 379.5.
Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, clm 29336 (s. x ex. or xi in.): HG 852.*
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Auct. F.3.6 (s. xi1): NRK 296; HG 537.*
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Rawlinson C.697 (s. ix3/4, NE France; England by s. x med.): HG 661.
Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, lat. 8085 (s. ix2/3 or ix med., France; England prob. By s. x/xi): HG 889.5.

Medieval Authors

Ælfric (c.955-c.1010)

Judith (c.1002-5)
London, British Library, Cotton Otho B.x, fols. 29-30 (s. xi med., prov. Worcester): NRK 178; HG 356.
Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 303 (s. xii1): NRK 57.

Libellus de ueteri testamento et nouo (c.1005-6)
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Bodley 343 (s. xii2, West Midlands): NRK 310.
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Laud Misc. 509 (s. xi3/4 or xi2, Canterbury?, Christ Church?): NRK 344; HG 657.

Aldhelm (639-709)

Carmen de uirginitate (CPL 1333)
Cambridge, University Library, Gg.5.35 (s. xi med., Canterbury, St. Augustine’s?): HG 12.
Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 285 (s. xi in.): HG 82.
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Bodley 49 (s. x med.): HG 542.
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Bodley 577 (s. x/xi, Canterbury, Christ Church): HG 584.
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Rawlinson C.697 (s. ix3/4, NE France; England by s. x med.): HG 661.*

Prosa de uirginitate (CPL 1332)
Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 326 (s. x/xi, Canterbury, Christ Church): HG 93.*
London, British Library, Royal 5.E.xi (s. x/xi, Canterbury, Christ Church): HG 458.*
London, British Library, Royal 5.F.iii (s. ix ex. or ix/x, Mercia, Worcester?): HG 462.*
London, British Library, Royal 6.A.vi (s. x ex., Canterbury, Christ Church): HG 464.*
London, British Library, Royal 6.B.vii (s. xi ex., prov. Exeter): HG 466.*
London, British Library, Royal 7.D.xxiv, fols. 82-168 (s. x1, S England): HG 473.*
London, Lambeth Palace Library 200, fols. 66-113 (s. x2, Canterbury, St. Augustine’s): HG 509.*
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Bodley 97 (s. xi in., prov. Canterbury, Christ Church): HG 545.*
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Digby 146 (s. x ex., prob. Abingdon): HG 613.*
Salisbury, Cathedral Library 38 (s. x ex., Canterbury): HG 707.*
Brussels, Bibliothèque Royale 1650 (s. xi in., Abingdon): HG 806.*
New Haven, Yale University, Beinecke Library 401 (s. viii ex. or ix in.): HG 857.*

Bede (c.673-735)

De die iudicii (CPL 1370)
Cambridge, University Library, Gg.5.35 (s. xi med., Canterbury, St. Augustine’s?): NRK 16; HG 12.
Cambridge, Trinity College O.2.31 (s. x/xi, Canterbury, Christ Church): HG 190.
London, British Library, Additional 11034 (s. x?): HG 280.
London, British Library, Cotton Domitian I, fols. 2-55 (s. x med, prob. Canturbury, St. Augustine’s): HG 326.
London, British Library, Royal 15.B.xix, fols. 79-199 (s. x, Rheims; England not before s. xii or xiii?): HG 493.
Salisbury, Cathedral Library 168 (s. xi ex., Salisbury): HG 750.
Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, lat. 8092 (s. xi2/4, England): HG 890.

Commentarius in Apocalypsim (CPL 1363)
Aberdeen, University Library 216 (s. xi ex., Salisbury): HG 1.
Durham, Cathedral Library A.IV.28 (s. xi/xii or xii in.): HG 225.
London, Lambeth Palace Library 149, fols. 1-139 (s. x2): HG 506.
Oxford, St. John’s College 89 (s. xi/xii, Canterbury, Christ Church): HG 685.

Hrabanus Maurus (c.780-856)

Expositio in Librum Iudith
Arras, Bibliothèque Municipale 764 (s. ix ex., NE France; Bath s. x), fols. 1-93: HG 779.

Milo of Saint Amand (c.809-871/2)

Carmen de sobrietate
Cambridge, University Library, Gg.5.35 (s. xi med., Canterbury, St. Augustine’s?): NRK 16; HG 12.

Old English Judith

London, British Library, Cotton Vitellius A.xv, fols. 94-209 (s. x/xi): NRK 216; HG 399.

Anglo-Saxon Glosses

Glosses on Aldhelm, Prosa de uirginitate
Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 326 (s. x/xi, Canterbury, Christ Church): HG 93.*
London, British Library, Royal 5.E.xi (s. x/xi, Canterbury, Christ Church): HG 458.*
London, British Library, Royal 5.F.iii (s. ix ex. or ix/x, Mercia, Worcester?): HG 462.*
London, British Library, Royal 6.A.vi (s. x ex., Canterbury, Christ Church): HG 464.*
London, British Library, Royal 6.B.vii (s. xi ex., prov. Exeter): HG 466.*
London, British Library, Royal 7.D.xxiv, fols. 82-168 (s. x1, S England): HG 473.*
London, Lambeth Palace Library 200, fols. 66-113 (s. x2, Canterbury, St. Augustine’s): HG 509.*
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Bodley 97 (s. xi in., prov. Canterbury, Christ Church): HG 545.*
Oxford, Bodleian Library, Digby 146 (s. x ex., prob. Abingdon): HG 613.*
Salisbury, Cathedral Library 38 (s. x ex., Canterbury): HG 707.*
Brussels, Bibliothèque Royale 1650 (s. xi in., Abingdon): HG 806.*
New Haven, Yale University, Beinecke Library 401 (s. viii ex. or ix in.): HG 857.*

Glosses on Prudentius, Psychomachia
Cambridge, University Library, Gg.5.35 (s. xi med., Canterbury, St. Augustine’s?): NRK 16; HG 12.
(Other glossed manuscripts exist—see the list of manuscripts for this work above—but this is the sole textual witness used in this study.)

“Interpretatio nominum ebraicorum et grecorum”
Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 144 (s. ix1, S England), fol. 2r: NRK 36; HG 45.

“Leiden Glossary”
Leiden, Bibliotheek der Rijksuniversiteit, Lat. Q. 69 (s. viii ex.), fols. 20r-36r: NRK App. 18.

* In this project, I am aware that the importance of source studies should not be ignored, nor should critiques and recent moves to look beyond this traditional approach. Perhaps most well-known of such critiques is that in Allen J. Frantzen, Desire for Origins: New Language, Old English and Teaching the Tradition (New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1990), esp. 62-95.

** See also “Addenda and Corrigenda to the Handlist of Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts,” ASE 32 (2003), 293-305; and “Second Addenda and Corrigenda to the Handlist of Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts,” ASE 40 (2011), 293-306.

*** Evidence for SASLC also relies on “Anglo-Saxon Versions” (e.g. translations), though this type of evidence is generally moot since I include in my corpus all texts as individual items, not derivative versions. It is also notable that Fontes Anglo-Saxonici mainly relies on quotations and/or citations, as well as relationships of Anglo-Saxon versions to sources, as evidence in their database.

[Addenda: This post was updated on July 27, 2013, to reflect information in Helmut Gneuss, “Second Addenda and Corrigenda to the Handlist of Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts,” Anglo-Saxon England 40 (2012), 293-306.]

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